Having an Issue? Popper Troubleshooting Tips

Roast too fast? Not dark enough? Something seems wrong with the roaster? Here’s some tips to solve Popper coffee roaster problems

This is an FAQ format page to address various questions and complaints we have had about the roaster, including issues with defective machines!

So far Popper has proven to be reliable, and we have some customers with 100+ roasts completed.

When you manufacture an appliance en masse you are told to expect a defect rate between 1.5% and 3%. That’s not due to a specific problem, but simply that somewhere in the parts and assembly, things aren’t perfect.

But Popper rate of defect has been well under 1% at this point, so we are doing pretty good! This is not surprising, because we have these made at a very reputable factory that designs and builds appliances for major brands. They even have our UL certification/testing staff embedded within the plant. On top of that, we hire a 3rd party testing service to randomly pull out units and test them. Some of you might have noted a small label “ITS” on the box of your popper. ITS = Independent Testing Service.

popper is a coffee roaster
popper is a coffee roaster

The majority of emails citing issues have been some confusion with directions, especially for people who have roasted before. (You read that right). It seems first-time users will tend to read directions more than experienced roasters! So here are some of the issues we have heard about, and how to address them! These are taken from emails we received…

There are three sections below: Troubleshooting Roasting Problems, Roaster Defect Problems, and Modification of Popper.


Troubleshooting Roasting Problems

The instructions say to roast 100 grams. My machine roasts fine, but only seems to roast 80 grams or so.

Short Answer: Try a different outlet.
Our new instructions will read 90 gram capacity, just to make sure we are under-promising a little. The fact is all units we test roast 100 grams of standard size and weight washed coffee. (You have to make adjustments for some other processes and varieties of green coffee though! They don’t all spin the same.)
That said, we have looked at 2 roasters returned for this issue, and both were fine. They roasted 95-100 grams. Without being able to verify this totally, I have to say I think it’s voltage issues with those 2 owners. Some people have older homes that don’t truly rate 120v at the outlet. Others have another load on the same line drawing power, or more obvious issues, like roasting with an extension cord .(Don’t!).
If you cannot test your line voltage (and the voltage drop that occurs when you use the roaster) then try to find an outlet closest to your electric fuse panel and test the machine there. Or try the machine at a friends house, especially if yours is older construction or has modified or converted electric service. Popper is 1200 watts and needs a good electric supply to work at it’s best.
Another issue here might be in the interpretation of what a good initial rotation of the coffee should look like. If the coffee is moving slowly for the first 30 seconds and gains speed, that is normal! You definitely want to weigh EVERY batch and be consistent, and use a batch size that does result in increased motion of the coffee over the first 30 seconds, If your coffee isn’t spinning at all after 30 seconds, you should stop the roast and remove some! But slower initial rotation is totally fine. Check out our video on this!
In any case, we haven’t seen a roaster that is said to roast only 80% of its capacity that is an actual machine defect – so far they have all been something with the environment they are used in.

I was roasting inside but now have to roast out in the garage, and it’s cold out! I am not getting the same roasts and it seems the machine isn’t working as well any more.

Short Answer: Outside roasting is an issue…. read on…
This might be a compound problem, and one we have seen with other coffee roasters too, especially air roasters. The first issue is ambient temperature. Higher velocity roasters like Popper will definitely roast differently when surrounded by colder air.
The second issue is often the quality of the electric supply in a garage or patio etc. Popper, and other roasters, need a good quality 120v outlet, and garage plugs or outdoor plugs are sometimes not the best.
There’s a safety concern too : Our experience is that people sometimes “take a break” from watching their roaster when they somewhere cold. We had a guy doing winter-time roasting on a patio table, but would sit inside where it was warm. Even though he was “10 feet away” he really couldn’t hear, see or smell the roast, and the coffee charred to a crisp and partially melted the machine. DON’T be that guy!
If you roast in a colder environment, you need to be doubly careful to watch the machine. They roast is absolutely going to be different. And the thermal sensor on the machine likely won’t regulate the high temperature in the same way when it’s cold out. I am sure there’s a safe way to manage all this, but please be aware of the risks in roasting in a garage or other colder place, and stay with your roaster at all times!

I am hitting first crack at around 3 minutes. Is this normal?

Short Answer: Change initial heat setting.
It’s possible to roast really fast in Popper, but not ideal. I like to see first crack start at 4 minutes at the soonest (which would read 6:00 on the count-down timer). I feel my best roasts have come from 1st crack at around 5:30 into the roast (which = 4:30 on the countdown timer). I would suggest roasting at a setting of about 1:15 on the heat dial, read as an analog clock face, and turning it down to 1:00 or just under, if that seems a bit fast. Using small adjustments around the 1:00 heat dial position has worked best for me. Fan is ALWAYS set to High initially, and if you want you can turn to Low as first crack approaches as a way to raise the heat in the roast chamber. Here’s our video on roaster adjustments.

My roasts are taking too long. It seems to stall when the coffee turns light brown, but hasn’t hit first crack yet.

Short Answer: Change heat settings.
It’s good to use a gentle warm-up, then slightly increase temperature to bring on 1st crack. You can also switch from High air flow (always start your roasts in High fan speed, 100% of the time!) and switch to low nearing first crack. Once the coffee is brown, it has lost enough weight in the form of moisture content, to make using Low fan speed practical. A combination of slight rise in the Heat setting knob, plus switching to Low fan speed will usually bring on first crack. If your roasts take over 9-10 minutes to hit first crack, I would consider that too slow in an air roaster like Popper. That could be fine in a drum type roaster, but in an air roaster it might lead to a “baked” taste in the coffee. I would target a slower roast in Popper, such as one for espresso, at around a 7:00 first crack, finishing up the roast around 10:00 total roast time (extended from the default using the timer). I have enjoyed some roasts that were as long as 12;00 total roast time, but not all. Some definitely seemed a bit baked.

I can’t get my roasts dark enough in Popper.

Short Answer: Popper isn’t good for Italian roasts, but …
There’s well-developed roasting, and then there’s burnt coffee. If you mean burnt, then Popper isn’t the best for dark roasting. We say that right up front in our descriptions, because home roasting appliances need to be safe, and really dark roasts reach the point of igniting the coffee: fire. The way to roast super dark are non-appliances like stovetop skillet roasting or a stovetop popper. You are going to deal with a lot of smoke and residue from dark roasting though. Popper can definitely produce intense pungent roast flavors, but not charred and burnt oily coffee beans. As I said, there isn’t a home roaster that really will, because it’s just not safe, plus, it really defeats the point. Roasted to that level, coffee basically tastes the same, regardless of where it is from, or how good the green coffee is. It’s best to buy some coffee on Ebay or Amazon, and roast in an iron skillet or modified barbeque drum outdoors, if that’s what you like!
That said, we do have a video with tips for getting coffee into second crack, and we have modified test versions of Popper to do so with ease. We don’t recommend modification as it voids the warranty though. Here’s our video on roasting darker and other adjustments.

Around 440 degrees I hear the fan speed increase and the roaster loses heat / roast stalls out.

Short Answer: The thermal cut-off kicked in. Read on…
There is a thermal cut off switch that prevents the roaster from getting too hot. It’s a safety precaution, and every home roaster has something of the sort … even air popcorn poppers have them. Sometimes it can stop the roast from progressing, for about 30 seconds ( it turns off the heating coils), but then the roaster will rapidly come back up to temperature. When it recovers the roaster will reach a higher temperature than the first thermal cut-off event, but it will, once again, activate at some point.
I have tested many units to find the real-world temperature cut-off point, and there is a range between 440 (only 1 tested that low) and 465 farenheit, measured with a bean probe.
We have a whole video dedicated to roast curves that touches on the activation of the thermal cut-off … in short a gentler roast curve will not trigger the heat loss until a higher temperature, and is a way better roast curve for quality coffee. Here’s our video on roasting darker and other adjustments.
That said, Popper is not really ideal for super dark, full-on rolling second crack, oily bean roasting. We try to highlight this right off the bat in the SM product description … it’s literally in the intro text to the Popper roaster. Super dark roasting is best done on a stovetop or in a barbeque, since there are no controls to limit you at all. But please be careful – you are literally on the verge of ignition with those kinds of dark roasts
There is a way to easily adjust the position of the thermal cut-off sensor to a higher position on the roast chamber, meaning it will kick in only at a higher temperature. My video on how I modify roasters for testing touches on this. It works, but I can’t recommend it since it voids the warranty if you modify the roaster.
If you experience a roaster that doesn’t finish first crack before the thermal cut-off kicks in, definitely check out the video and article about roast curves. If it is still a problem contact info@sweetmarias.com


Roaster Defect Problems

Popper worked fine for my first 2 roasts. The third time I went to use it, I set the fan to High but it sounded different. The speed of the fan seemed to be varying randomly, going up and down in pitch, and the coffee was moving irregularly.

Short Answer: Contact us.
If you used the machine successfully, then noted a difference in the fan, like it was struggling to spin, with the speed going up and down, this is a fan defect. Contact the seller (info@sweetmarias.com) and tell them about the issue. They should issue a return tag to get the roaster back and inspect it, and replace the machine (if it’s in the 1 year warranty, and I am sure it is at this point!) In any case, don’t use the machine.
This issue usually crops up after a couple uses, But we have noted 2 units where it happens after 20-25 roasts.
While it’s a known issue with a small percentage of fan motors, people should be aware that you can kill the machine by allowing chaff to settle around the base …and that chaff can get sucked up from the bottom vent on the underside into the fan area. Keep chaff buildup away from the base when roasting!
Please note that we did have a customer complain of the roaster fan speed going up and down, but it was happening at a regular interval. It was not a roaster problem, but their line voltage shared with other loads. A defect fan will randomly go up and down at irregular intervals and to a different pitch each time!
We will test your roaster if it comes in for return to see if it is functioning okay to spec. or indeed has an issue, and let you know.

The hinge on the chaff collector is cracked.

Short Answer: Fix it if you can…
We check all the machines shipped for box damage, and we actually spent a lot on those cardboard inserts at each end of the roaster to ensure protecting the top end of the Popper.
So the only damage we have found was when UPS punctured a box (it happened) or somebody drops the top when using it. (I have done it myself several times because yeah, I am clumsy, I admit it!) The fact is, you can use the roaster even if the top gets a bit wonky from some accident. I have also repaired hinges I have broken. (I drilled a small hole and inserted a screw to act as a pin in one of them. You could also wire the chaff collector on, which makes emptying it a little harder, but not impossible. I use a vacuum to remove chaff so it mattered little to me when I did it. In any case, there are DIY solutions for this, if you drop the top, including good old super glue.
While dropping the machine or top is not covered by warranty, we might be able to help you out too. We do not have spare parts for the top (long story, but the factory has trouble producing extras from the mold, but we will keep pushing for them).
If you chose to roast without a top, or without a chaff collector in place, theres a couple things to know.
– First – it doesn’t actually seem to impact the roast that much, except for a small loss of heat due to hot air exiting the roaster easier.
-You can also use one of the glass chimneys we sell for air popcorn poppers on top of Popper roaster, in lieu of the top! It actually works well!
-Lastly, be careful of chaff that will now land all around your roaster base! Be sure none gets sucked up into the machine from the air intake vents on the bottom. This is bad for the motor, and could ignite in the machine!

I received my Popper. It does not say “Popper” on the front!

Short Answer: The roaster should be fine.
We have had 2 cases where the roaster was missing the “Popper” name from the front. I can’t explain this, except to say the roaster should be fine! It was a surprise to me, but I do recall they came up short on the outside chassis and had to use every single one they could find for the first shipment. So that might have meant a few of the outside shells were used before the name was printed on them? Well, maybe you have a rare collectors item there…

I went to use the machine and it was just dead. No power. Nothing lit up. No numbers on timer etc.

Short Answer: Contact us.
We had this occur once. I can’t explain it and when we get that machine back we will do an autopsy to see why! Do, of course, try a different outlet before contacting us. If that’s not the problem, email info@sweetmarias.com


Modification of Popper

I want to add a thermometer to Popper.

Short Answer: It’s very helpful, but…
Be aware that it does void the 1 yr warranty if you open up the machine or drill into it.
It is quite easy to add temperature measurement, and useful in guiding the adjustments you make to “profile” the heat during roasting.
Sorry to say that we can’t have people making holes in the machine etc, and honor a warranty. The issue, from the maker’s perspective, is you just don’t know how people will go about doing a modification. Some people are incredibly skilled, others not so much! Most DIY maker types accept this responsibility: It rarely stops them from tinkering with things. I consider myself moderately skilled and have, since I have opened up so many Poppers at this point, damaged several unintentionally despite my familiarity with the guts.
In any case, I show how I add a Rigid SS thermocouple to Popper for testing some units, and it does not require opening up the machine from the base. Still, since people are going to take a drill bit to an appliance in that case, we can’t be sure they will do things right, hence the warranty issue. (“right” means drilling exactly 13.5-14 cm from the top rim, btw).
While its possible to snake a thermocouple in from the top without drilling the into the roaster body, the problem is placement in the machine, how to fix it to a spot. If it moves around, your readings won’t be meaningful. I haven’t found a solution, but let me know if you do!
My video on how I modify Popper units for testing has some info on this.

Can I force this roaster to go darker without cutting out the heat?

Short Answer: Yes but bypassing or modifying the thermal cutout sensor could be risky, and also voids the warranty…
There is a thermal cut off switch mounted on the side of the roast chamber that prevents the roaster from getting too hot. It’s a safety precaution, and every home roaster has something of the sort … even air popcorn poppers have them. If you look into the roast chamber from the top and see a flat area along the side, that is where the sensor is mounted on the outside of the roast chamber wall. My video on how I modify Popper units for testing has some info on this.
Yes, if you open up the machine, it is possible to shift the position of the sensor so it triggers later. Simply moving it to a higher position (half inch or so) up the roast chamber wall means it will kick in only at a higher temperature. My video on how I modify roasters for testing touches on this. It works, but I can’t recommend it since it voids the warranty if you modify the roaster. If you bypass the sensor you have no thermal overheat protection, so please don’t!
Modification is not recommended, potentially dangerous, and voids any warranty for Popper!

I want to record temperatures / roast curves. I was thinking of using Arduino interface. Any tips

Short Answer: Google it.
Yes, people are definitely doing this. Using Phidget / Arduino or other interface for thermocouples. As with air popcorn poppers, all the info is out there. As you know, it voids warranty to to this but Popper isn’t the cost of some of the commercial machines people do this with! As far as handing over control of the roast settings (fan and heat) to a computer, ie automated roasting, I personally wouldn’t do that, but of course people do. Logging temperatures, being able to see live roast curves, and making adjustments yourself using your own judgment and experience is, I feel, the best of both worlds …

Popper Availability and Sweet Maria’s

Popper Coffee Roaster Control Knobs

Why isn’t Popper on Amazon? Why isn’t it sold everywhere?

Thanks for asking!

Popper is a fairly new product on the marketplace (well, nearly 1900 of them have been sold so it’s not rare or anything). While there is a decent supply of them, there isn’t enough to distribute them widely yet, and, more importantly, not the support staff to administer this.

Popper shares space with Sweet Maria’s and is in fact related since one of the owners, Thompson, is also the person behind it. The fact is, Popper probably wouldn’t be possible without Sweet Maria’s as a partner, although the company and project are entirely separate business-wise.

Popper Coffee Roaster Control Knobs
Popper Coffee Roaster Control Knobs-, home coffee roasting

Popper is also not the kind of project that could exist stand-alone. TBH it is basically cost-prohibitive to bring a moderately priced roaster to market, and it going to take some time to break even with the costs to get this manufactured. I can see why people use kickstarter to push that cost onto future customers … not sure that really works in the long run either though. There isn’t a lot of focus on all the misfires and failed products there… mostly just “we received our 150k funding in just 3 hours!” Ha ha. (Yes I am still waiting on my filter free ceramic dripper from mid 2021!)

As you may know, the environment for manufacturing and logistics has become really challenging. For example the container shipment cost (just shipment) that was under $3000 rose 400% between the first and second shipment. Yes, when the second shipment starts selling the retail price of Popper has to go up. That’s just the world these days.

Anyway, in time things will change but until we see Popper all over the place. Especially when the mfr costs and logistics stabilize. Until then, this is where you get Popper: https://www.sweetmarias.com/popper.html

The Popper Coffee Roaster YouTube Channel

popper is a coffee roaster - disassembly

Popper has a separate You Tube channel with some helpful videos

I have been adding some videos on You Tube and want to make sure folks can find the channel. Seems like searches for Popper and Video have a lot of results!

The channel link is : https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCExelM89WQaU9MmYVlX3f8Q

The latest video is a bit of candid talk and a take-part / deconstruction of Popper to show the build and insides. I can’t recommend modifying it in any way, but I do want to show how it is built, the components, and how I test the units.

Popper Deconstruction: Inside an Air Coffee Roaster

deconstructed popper coffee roasters

A very basic video about making and testing Popper, the air coffee roaster.

Here’s a video to show a few early versions of the machine, and some aspects I had to deal with in getting this project completed.

I don’t think this is a video of general interest so please don’t expect much, and the quality isn’t great. I was trying to move the camera phone around to show details and didn’t always do a great job. Ugh.

Also I need to make it clear that you shouldn’t do what I do here, because opening up the machine voids the warranty against manufacturer defect. I made the video to provide some background details only, and show how I test temperatures.

  • Some things I go over here are
  • A look at an early prototype
  • Location of the thermal cutout switch that protects Popper from overheating
  • When I have a unit that turns off before reaching dark roasts, how i move the thermal cutout switch upward to solve the issue.
  • How I use a thermometer to probe the bean mass
  • Show a bare version with probe locations for input air and bean temperatures
  • Deconstruct (partially) a Popper to show how it’s put together
  • Talk about the unit that easily roasted 140 grams, and why I couldn’t get it built that way 😢

PS – this is in my workshop space where I store the pallets of Popper, hence the motorbikes and cars and such.

Inside Popper Coffee Roaster

A Home Coffee Roaster Called Popper

Popper Coffee Roaster Front Angle View

It is indeed, a Popper! But Popper is a coffee roaster indeed

We are excited to launch this new home roaster because it offers a great, economical option to start roasting your own coffee. But we also think experienced folks who roast coffee will find it attractive … and perhaps those who like to modify machines too.

Popper is, as the name makes pretty clear, based on the hot air popcorn poppers so many people use to roast coffee. (And in case you are wondering … Popper does indeed do a good job popping popcorn too!) Popper allows user-control of the heat level, fan speed (just high and low really) and the roast time. These can all be fluidly adjusted during the roast cycle.

A Quick 2:00 Popper Roast Run-through

Popper coffee roaster 2:00 Intro video

Not high tech… but simple, straightforward, and user-friendly

Popper has no automated roast cycles, beyond a default 7:00 roast and 3:00 cool. You, the user, can “profile” the heat curve and set roast parameters using the front control knobs. But nothing is “preset” for you. If you want a roaster that saves programs, has automated roast curves, or connects to your phone app, Popper is not for you, probably

Turn on the Popper and you see 0:00 on the timer and a green light – the Off position. When you start a roast batch, the maximum time allowed will read 10:00 on the digital count-down timer. But that is not 10:00 of roast time. The final 3:00 on the timer is the cooling cycle. During the roast the light is red, and when the timer reaches 3:00 it turns blue for cooling. So yeah, you gotta do a little math: 5:00 on the timer clock means you have 2:00 more of roasting and then 3:00 of cooling. You can handle it!

The nice thing here is, unlike some other roasters, you can use the time dial to add and subtract roast time during the roast whenever you want. Even if Popper goes into cooling mode, just turn the dial above 3:00 and you can roast more.

In other words, Popper is pretty inuituve for you to control. It’s not high tech but -pretty ok in terms of human tech. And we still think humans controlling and making decisions about the roast process is the best way.

Please see the FAQ Page for lots more detail

Here is a slightly more detailed 7:00 Popper coffee roaster intro video…

Popper is a coffee roaster, intro video 7:00

Popper Quick Start Guide and Safety Precautions

Popper comes with some printed guides to get you started and offer safety advice. Here are some image highlights, and the full PDFs are linked below-

Popper PDFs

These come with the machine, but here are printable PDF versions in case you misplace them

Please see the Popper FAQ Page for lots more detail

Some things take time, like manufacturing a coffee roaster …

Popper is a coffee roaster

popper*, the coffee roaster was right on the verge of going into production.

… but one thing just wasn’t right. The factory had sent sample after sample, but the fan speed (and therefore the air flow) was not consistent. This impacted the potential batch size.

A late night video chat with the engineers in China made it clear to me though. They were testing under the principle that the roaster should not use the entire pre-programmed roast cycle of 7 minutes. They thought of 0 to 7 as a range so they were presupposing what I wanted was a 4 minute roast!

Well, a 4 minute roast is easy in a popper, but it’s rarely an ideal roast time. In fact, the whole idea of *popper is that the user can fluidly adjust roast time up or down on the fly. It’s a manual, low tech machine, unless you want to get in there with an arduino interface etc.

It’s a machine that rewards people who want to play around with the variables, so it’s simple to do a 7 minute roast just to first crack and add 2 or 3 minutes for development. You just have to be there and tend to your roast, make intuitive decisions and turn a knob. Simple.

(For me I actually feel the 7 minute pre-set roast time can work very well. For City roast I target 5:30 to hear the start of first crack, and the remaining 1:30 for further development. Remember, roast time is relative to the device and the type of thermal transfer. Higher air flow and more movement of the mass means more rapid levels of heat transfer via convection.)

Let’s call it February …

popper coffee roaster line art

Popper* will make coffee go pop, but probably pop corn too. And it is coming along nicely. No need to rush to get it made before Christmas, because it needs to do what it’s supposed to do. It’s going to be February I think.

The prototype samples were going well except in one regard: Each seemed to roast a little less than the previous. We ended up with a final sample straining to move 85 grams of fresh green coffee. No!

So we delayed production to balance out fan and heat and the roast chamber vents. I worked on the exit air vents thinking they were constricting flow … but it turned out it was the inlet air vents. And just minor tweaks made big changes in batch capacity.

But those changes impacted the heat curve too and, while I could roast 140 grams, too much heat was blowing by the coffee and out of the roaster. I couldn’t get darker roasts within a single cycle. (I could by adding time, but we need dark roasts to be in closer range).

So now, fingers crossed, last set of prototypes are on the way with new fan speed, and an additional set of roast chambers, 5 in all, to find the best combination.

I think this is it! What I want is a 120 gram target that makes use of the range of air and heat settings, allowing manual profiling with extended roast times, and full roast range.

And with that, I’m able to get some really striking profiles that don’t at all taste like fast popcorn popper air roasts. Low heat warm-up times, ramping up to first crack, and backing off to finish the roast with control. The 10 minute roast profile I did yesterday of Guji Uraga Hare Wato was really the best roast I have had of that coffee. Really fantastic, sweet and floral.

popper coffee roaster line art
popper coffee roaster line art

What’s in a Name? Not Much.

Popper roaster logo
Popper the Roaster Logo Name

So we had some clever names, and over time none of them seemed right. We ended up with a name which is okay, likely not the best. It’s not clever or funny, unless it’s funny in a bad way, like ha ha that’s dumb. But in the case I think it’s okay to be dumb.

I have product fatigue. I am tired of new versions of the same old thing. I am tired of being a consumer and tired of feeling duped. That likely will never end, I am a sucker and I supposed most people are, just at varying intensity levels. (?)

Anyway, you have to give something a name it can be called. You have to “market” it at least to the degree it is being “brought to the market” as a thing to sell, and it needs some name to distinguish it from all other things. We could just point and say “that thing” but it might be confusing.

So there’s this mental exhaustion I have brought on by nearly all shopping except just repetitive grocery type trips. And even those too …for example, walking down the beer aisle at your basic fancy store, and just being tired of all the labels trying to have “personality.” *

I know, ironic since we have a site (ie sweetmarias / coffeeshrub) with a bunch of choices and long reviews and exhaustive descriptors.

So yeah, Popper* and an explanation “popper is a coffee roaster.” I guess for me, 20+ years in home roasting business, there has been some dry (very very dry) humor in pointing at a popper and calling it a roaster. So I started to write popper-roaster, or air-popper-roaster, or air roaster, but appreciated that someone who had no context to understand what it refers to finds any title confusing.

So I guess Popper as a name just ropes in that confusion and claims it.

The other funny thing is the name is too common to be a trademark. Not that we are just saying “yeah, copy us, open source.” I feel like we own this project and put a lot of time and money into it. It’s not cheap for tooling and such in manufacturing.

At the same time, it’s a popper! We didn’t invent that. We weren’t the first people to roast coffee in an air-popper-roaster. We made a lot of small decisions that resulted in this thing, but it’s not that big a deal.

And as it sits it is not the ultimate coffee roaster. It just works well, costs less, is basic and easy to use, and (nudge nudge) it could be made more interesting as well by some clever people in the internet world.

We did our part. Here it is. Well, soon, like probably Oct-Nov 2020.

I can’t believe you read all this! – Thompson

* Things relate as subjects, people relate as objects. This is the basic notion of Commodity Fetishism. It’s the way, for example, cars have “Stance” or “Character” in advertising. And in the world, on the road, express the Taste, Character or Class of the owner. But the person themselves is mute, as an object.